Development of Aboriginal People's Communities

Peter Elias     

Captus Press, ISBN 978-0-921801-51-1 (1991)
266 pages, 450 g, 7.125 X 9.25, $27.50 (US$27.50)
 

Primarily for courses examining development issues.

This book traces and analyses the recent evolution in thinking about the development of aboriginal people's communities. Since 1969, aboriginal people have set three goals for the future -- economic self-reliance, self-government, and cultural autonomy. Examples discussed in this book illustrate the central issues in economic, political and cultural development, how aboriginal people view those issues, and how they have set about solving development problems. An overview of aboriginal people's initiatives to take charge of their communities is presented which in turn fuels a forecast of how aboriginal communities will develop in the future.

Table of Contents   top

PREFACE

CHAPTER ONE: APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

THE HISTORY OF APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT

  • Before the modem era of development
  • The Hawthorn Report
  • Community development
  • The National Indian Advisory Board
  • An Indian Claims Commission for Canada
  • The end of innovation
  • The White Paper
  • Modernization
  • Wahbung: Our Tomorrows
  • Together Today for Our Children Tomorrow
  • Development and the Western Métis - the early 1970s
  • Economic development
  • Indian Economic Development Fund
  • Statement on Economic Development of Indian Communities
  • A Strategy for the Socio-economic Development of Indian People
  • The Berger Report
  • Comprehensive development - an early example
  • A unified approach to development
  • The Penner Report
  • Pragmatic accommodations
  • The Beaver Report
  • New Directions in the Indian-Government Relationship
  • Dual Realities - Dual Strategies
  • The Ontario Indian Economic Development Board
  • The Canadian Aboriginal Economic Development Strategy

THE CONTEMPORARY SITUATION

CONCLUSION

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER TWO: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

INTRODUCTION

  • The Kaska Dena on the middle ground

PEOPLE AND RESOURCES - A HISTORY OF EXCLUSION

  • Water in an environment of constraint
  • Gaining control of water - tactics
  • Provisions of the Indian Act
  • Negotiation
  • The courts
  • Legislated change
  • The claims process
  • Assertion

OTHER RESOURCES, SAME CONSTRAINTS

  • A middle path - resource co-management
  • The Waterhen Moose and Wood Bison Management Agreements
  • The Teme-Augama Stewardship Agreement
  • The Porcupine Caribou Management Board
  • Comprehensive land claims and co-management

CONCLUSION

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER THREE: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND BUSINESS

INTRODUCTION

TAXATION STRATEGIES AND TACTICS

  • Taxation: a system of constraint
  • Nowegijick
  • Eligibility for exemptions
  • Property exemptions
  • Debts owed to Indians
  • Retail sales taxes
  • The Goods and Services Tax
  • Customs and duties
  • Corporations
  • Taxation strategies and tactics
  • Taxation by-laws
  • Tax avoidance
  • Joint ventures and taxation
  • Charities and taxation
  • The Sechelt Act
  • The Kamloops Amendment
  • Other proposals for legislated change
  • Constitutional change
  • Taxation and land claims
  • Assertion of rights
  • The future of taxation

INVESTMENT STRATEGIES AND TACTICS

  • The amounts involved
  • "Coping with the cash"
  • The record of the settled claims
  • Investment in organized markets
  • Investment in enterprise

PAYOUTS AND DIVIDENDS

INVESTMENT IN LOCAL INSTITUTIONS

CONCLUSION

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER FOUR: POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

SELF-GOVERNMENT - LOST AND FOUND

CONSTRAINTS ON SELF-GOVERNMENT

REGAINING CONTROL - STAGED INITIATIVES

  • Grassroots political development
  • Fine-tuning imposed rules
  • Program devolution
  • Function devolution
  • Legislated self-government - the Sechelt Act
  • The Alberta-Métis Settlements Accord
  • Other Métis communities
  • Land claims and constitutional change
  • International support
  • Assertions of right
  • Penetrating Canada's political frontier

INTERNAL CONSTRAINTS ON POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT

  • The form of se1f-government
  • The Gitksan and Wet'suwet'en model of balance
  • Performing self-government
  • Funding self-government

CONCLUSION

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER FIVE: CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

CONSTRAINTS ON CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

  • The courts on tradition
  • Assimilation and acculturation
  • Divided interests

CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES AND TACTICS

  • Grassroots cultural development
  • Nutshimium Atesseun
  • Resource harvester support programs

NEGOTIATED AGREEMENTS FOR CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

  • Peigan Prevention Counselling Services
  • Regaining the child
  • Nuu-chah-nulth Family and Child Services

INNOVATION AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

  • The role of elders

THE POINT OF CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

  • Local stability
  • Accommodation
  • A gauge of the problem: women, work and education
  • Employment and education strategies and tactics
  • Reallocation of available funds
  • Local and regional job takeover
  • Staffing needs of aboriginal organizations
  • Resources, education, and employment

CONCLUSION

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER SIX: PLANNING DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

  • The Lethbridge Aboriginal Women's Group
  • Science and non-science
  • The Arctic Environmental Strategy
  • The Lax'skiik project

PLANNING AND INFORMATION

  • The role of planning
  • The role of information
  • The well-informed Dakota
  • Getting information
  • Uses of information
  • Affirmative action in the Northwest Territories

FUNCTIONS OF PLANNING AND INFORMATION

GOALS

ASSESSMENT, MONITORING, AND EVALUATION

  • Quality of life and standard of living
  • Functionings and capabilities
  • Social indicators
  • Off-the-shelf indicators of change
  • Custom-built indicators of change
  • Complex systems of indicators
  • Very complex systems of indicators
  • A central role for local knowledge
  • Indicators of political and cultural change

FORECASTING

TAKING CONTROL OF INFORMATION

  • Nin-Da-Waab-Jig
  • The Prince Albert Tribal Council

CONCLUSION

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER SEVEN: PROSPECTS

INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

  • Model of change
  • Goals
  • Constraints
  • Implementation
  • Forecast

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

KEYWORD INDEX

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