Economic Development among the Aboriginal Peoples in Canada
The Hope for the Future

Robert Brent Anderson     

Captus Press, ISBN 978-1-896691-56-5 (1999)
310 pages, 580 g, 7 X 10, $32.25 (US$25.80)
 

For Native Studies courses on economic development and issues in Aboriginal business.

Aboriginal peoples in Canada and Indigenous peoples around the world are becoming increasingly active in economic development activities. To find a place in the new global economy, competitive business venture creations are emerging at the regional, national, and international level. This book explores economic development in order to achieve a greater understanding of this process. Throughout the book, Anderson examines the objectives, strategies, structures, and activities of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada with the following four goals:

  • to identify the emerging approach to development
  • to build models of development that offer new insight
  • to investigate economic development activities in order to determine if they are consistent with the models
  • to examine actual development outcomes to determine if they met the expectations, and to examine whether they have been proven to be effective

Table of Contents   top

1. Introduction

2. Aboriginal Economic Development

2.1. The Aboriginal Peoples in Canada

2.2. Indigenous People and Economic Development

2.3. Economic Development and the Aboriginal Peoples in Canada

2.4. The Issues and Questions

2.5. The Aboriginal Approach to Development: Cases

  • Case 2–1: Essipit’s Economic Development: For Our Fathers and Our Children (1997)
  • Case 2–2: Where the Buffalo Roam: Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Building on Tradition (1997)
  • Case 2–3: Prince Albert Development Corporation: First Nations Working Together Toward Economic Development (1997)
  • Case 2–4: Aboriginal Culture Shines at Nakoda Lodge (1997)
  • Case 2–5: Trapping the Future (1996)
  • Case 2–6: Techs Unlimited (1997)

3. Theory Review and Development

3.1. The Orthodox and Radical Perspectives

  • 3.1.1. The Modernization Perspective
  • 3.1.2. The Radical Perspectives
  • 3.1.3. Concluding Comments on the Orthodox and Radical Perspectives

3.2. The Emergence of Contingent Perspectives on Development

  • 3.2.1 Regulation Theory
  • 3.2.2. The Postimperial Perspective
  • 3.2.3. Alternative and Indigenous Development Approaches
    • Case 3–1: FirstHosts For First Nations Tourism (1996)

3.3. The Contingency Perspective

3.4. The Contingency Perspective and Aboriginal Development

4. Aboriginal Rights, Land Claims and Treaties

4.1. The MacKenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry

4.2. The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement

  • 4.2.1. Makivik Corporation
  • 4.2.2. The Cree Regional Authority
  • 4.2.3. Concluding Comments on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement
  • 4.2.4. Cases: Aboriginal Communities and Hydroelectric Development
    • Case 4–1: Wawatay Generating Station (1997)
    • Case 4–2: The Dokis Hydro Project: A First For First Nations (1997)
    • Case 4–3: Dogrib Nation Powerful Players in Development (1997)

4.3. The Inuvialuit Final Agreement

  • 4.3.1. The Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
    • Case 4–4: Inuvialuit Sporting Goods Ltd. (1997)
  • 4.3.2. Concluding Comments on the Inuvialuit Final Agreement
  • 4.3.3. Cases: Small Business Among the Inuvialuit
    • Case 4–5: Arctic Tour Company — Tuktoyaktuk (1997)
    • Case 4–6: Kakivak Spearheading Inuit Small Business Development (1997)
    • Case 4–7: Inuit Communications Systems Limited Connecting the North (1997)
    • Case 4–8: Indivisual Productions (1997)

4.4. The Nisga’a Final Agreement

4.5. Conclusions

5. Corporate Aboriginal Alliances

5.1. Corporate Aboriginal Programs

  • 5.1.1. Factor 2: Social Responsibility
  • 5.1.2. Factor 3: Legal Requirements
  • 5.1.3. Factor 4: Aboriginal Labour Force and Market
  • 5.1.4. Factor 5: Natural and Financial Resources
  • 5.1.5. Factor 3 Revisited

5.2. Corporate Aboriginal Relations: Survey Results

5.3. Corporate Aboriginal Programs: ‘Best Cases’

  • 5.3.1. Employment Equity Programs
  • 5.3.2. Market-Based Programs
  • 5.3.3. Resource-Based Programs
  • 5.3.4. Balanced Programs
  • 5.3.5. Summary: ‘Best Case Programs’

5.4. Summary and Conclusions

5.5. Mutually Beneficial Alliances: Cases

  • Case 5–1: White Bear Oil and Gas (1997)
  • Case 5–2: Torngait Ujaganniavingit Corporation (TUC) (1997)
  • Case 5–3: Xexe7ellp Ginseng: A Potent Recipe for Success (1996)
  • Case 5–4: The Red Dog Inn: A Partnership Grows (1997)

6. Entrepreneurship: New Venture Creation in an Aboriginal Context

6.1. Entrepreneurship, Innovation, New Venture Creation and the Economy

6.2. Entrepreneurship

6.3. Definitions of Entrepreneurship; Characteristics of an Entrepreneur

6.4. Identifying Innovative Opportunities

6.5. Opportunity Identification in an Aboriginal Context: Sources and Examples

  • Case 6–1: Success Sweet For Saskatoon Berry Entrepreneurs (1996)
  • Case 6–2: Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic Revamped (1996)
  • Case 6–3: L&L Foods & Beverages, Suppliers of Water, Juice, Cola, and First Nations Awareness (1997)
  • Case 6–4: Selkirk First Nation Ventures into World Commodities Market (1996)
  • Case 6–5: A Thriving Business in La Romaine (1997)

6.6. Forms of Business Organization

  • 6.6.1. Sole Proprietorship
  • 6.6.2. Partnerships
  • 6.6.3. Corporations
  • 6.6.4. Joint Ventures
  • 6.6.5. Cooperatives
  • 6.6.6. Development Corporations
  • 6.6.7. Development Corporations: Examples
    • Case 6–6: LIDC — Labrador Inuit Development Corporation (1996)
    • Case 6–7: Four Winds Trading Company (1997)

7. First Nations Economic Development in Saskatchewan

7.1. Planning, Organization and Ownership

  • 7.1.1. Development Plans
  • 7.1.2. Economic Development Responsibilities and Structures
  • 7.1.3. Forms of Business Ownership
  • 7.1.4. Summary: Planning Organization and Ownership

7.2. Comparative Business Development Performance

  • 7.2.1. First Nation and Tribal Council Rankings
  • 7.2.2. Analysis of Relative Business Development Activity
  • 7.2.3. Summary

7.3. Comparative Economic Development Results

  • 7.3.1. Household Income
  • 7.3.2. Labour Force and Participation, Employment and Unemployment Rates
  • 7.3.3. Summary: Comparative Performance 1986 to 1991

7.4. Forms of Ownership, Markets and Business Size

  • 7.4.1. Forms of Ownership
  • 7.4.2. Market Scale and Ownership
  • 7.4.3. Business Size and Ownership
  • 7.4.4. Economic Impact and Ownership
  • 7.4.5. Ownership, Market Scale, Business Size and Economic Development Success

7.5. First Nations Business Performance to Date

  • 7.5.1. Saskatchewan Indian Equity Foundation and Peace Hills Trust
  • 7.5.2. Aboriginal Business Canada

7.6. Capacity Building

  • 7.6.1. Education
  • 7.6.2. Financial Institutions

7.7. Summary and Conclusion

8. Economic Development Activities of the Meadow Lake Tribal Council

8.1. Study Area and Subjects

8.2. The Demographic and Socioeconomic Conditions

8.3. The Meadow Lake Tribal Council

  • 8.3.1. Economic Development Activities: 1986 to 1991
  • 8.3.2. Capacity Building: Education
  • 8.3.3. Post 1991: Looking to the Future

8.4. MLTC Forestry Developments

8.5. MLTC Twenty Year Plan

8.6. Concluding Comments

8.7. Other Aboriginal forestry Operations

  • Case 8–1: Nootka Merchandising: Making Wood Go Farther (1996)
  • Case 8–2: A (Finger-)Joint Venture (1996)
  • Case 8–3: Pic Heron Bay Development Corporation — Forestry Operation (1997)

9. Summary and Conclusions

9.1. Economic Development Goals, Strategies and Structures

9.2. Economic Development Theory

9.3. Outcomes: On the Right Track

Appendices

  • Appendix 1: Economic Imperatives to Settle a Nisga’a Treaty
  • Appendix 2: Comprehensive Claims Policy and Status of Claims
  • Appendix 3: UN Experts seminar: Indigenous Land Claims
  • Appendix 4: Social and Economic Impacts of Aboriginal Land Claims Settlements
  • Appendix 5: The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement
  • Appendix 6: Nisga’a Final Agreement in Brief
  • Appendix 7: The Benefits and Costs of Treaty Settlements in British Columbia
  • Appendix 8: References

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About the Author   top

Robert B. Anderson